Bill Gates handed over charge of Microsoft last week, and — after a brief summer break — will return to a full-time role at the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation (BMGF). The debate on NGO accountability is not going to get resolved any time soon. But, there is consensus on one point: NGOs are facing pressure to remain relevant. And it’s here that Bill Gates in his new avatar will create enormous friction, globally as well as in India. Many NGOs in India are still uncomfortable with market forces, either as legitimate players in the social change space, or as funders of social initiatives. By being the 800lb gorilla in the donor space, BMGF will force such NGOs to make tough choices: Will they oppose market-based/market-funded social change, or accommodate this new dynamic? Or, worse still, hold their noses as they reluctantly accept funds from the most successful capitalist of the 20th century?