The Nange Paon Satyagrah is a social campaign against all those traditions, customs, policies and practices which give rise to inequality, promote injustice and hinder liberty. Nange Paon (barefoot) is symbol of social rejection, political exploitation and economic disparities which the poor and powerless ones are subjected to. Satyagraha is passive resistance in retaliation of these. In other words it can be said a campaign focusing on and fighting for the rights of the poor. Like other phenomena, the conflict between the naxlites and the state also worsened the situations of the poor in Chhattisgarh; they became accessible targets of both the conflicting parties. Their basic human rights of peace and dignity are on cross roads. If a quick glance at the profiles of deceased ones in naxal violence is made, we shall find them from low socio-economic profile. The naxals as well as the police are deeply engaged in harassing the poor. Surguja district is the area wherefrom the Satyagrah is operating directly. Surguja is one of the naxal infested districts of Chhattisgarh. Atrocities upon poor in the name of naxlites thus became an area of concern as well as priority for us. Hence from 2004 onwards, we accelerated our ongoing activities in this direction. We were the first in Chhattisgarh to demand retreat of armed security forces from Surguja, on 24th August 2004 we staged one day long sit-in before S.P.Balrampur. Although our demands could not be met yet this small step of ours raised a question mark on the harsh attitude of security personnel. Finding some one to question their nefarious activities and asserting for the rights of those who can not assert, they changed their perceptions, attitude and behavior towards people. We demanded presence of government employees on the places of their posting, usually the government employees posted in remote rural areas are not found. During reign of Dig Vijay Singh government in erstwhile Madhya Pradesh many new appointments of functionaries for rural areas took place; those appointments were full of corruption, candidates from urban areas were selected en-masse. These employees least cared for stay in their headquarters, in this way our villages started getting cut off from the government. Absolute absence of the government from these villages sowed the seeds of discontent among the rural populace. High degree opaque & in accountable governance further aggravated the situation. Our plea is that the Government which never reached villages with slates, black board, chalks, pencils, medicines, vaccines and other developmental activities should not reach the villages with arms & guns. Same year we came out successful in lobbying the case of five victims of fake-arrests by the Rajpur police in Surguja. Apart from this success, we succeeded in other cases also. We sent a set of suggestions to the Government for bringing peace. During initial stages of our lobbying on this issue, we found ourselves in hot waters as we were suspected to be the think tanks of naxlites by the bureaucrats even though we did not give up. We persistently adhered to our path, we kept on bringing before the notice of the police authorities the incidences of police excesses; and; in some cases the indifferent attitude of police towards poor in filing F.I.R. Although we changed our demand from “retreat of armed security forces” to “implement the recommendations of National Police Commission (1978-81)” yet we took over the issue of peace building more intensively. During 2006, we put all our efforts in this direction. On 17th April 2004 we organized one day long state level consultation on “Addressing Human Rights in Conflict Situations” at Raipur. From 14th to 16th October in the same year we organized state level training of N.G.Os in Raipur on “Protecting Human Rights in Conflict Situations”. What is Conflict all about? Before discussing the much heard word “conflict”, a discussion on this term is mandatory for clarification of perspective. Conflicts may be defined as total range of behavior and attitudes that express opposition or in other words disagreement of opinion. Individuals and groups in a society when find themselves in disagreement about the facts of a situation, about the goals to be achieved and about the relevant guiding values then conflict is inevitable and is likely to occur. Role pressures, lack of communication, basic misunderstanding, limited resources, power struggles and change can be said basic causes of conflict. Conflict, communication and change are three important C’s. in conflict resolution process. Conflict is a clash between opinions or interests. Humanity sets up institutions to protect the interests. But when institutions fail to provide equal protection to the rights of all, or themselves become instruments of manipulation, conflicts arise. It often seems impossible to secure redress without recourse to conflict. The conflict is symptomatic of arrested growth and development, anarchy, injustice, corruption and negation of rule of law. The first and foremost casualty of breach of peace at any level is the human rights. The crux of conflict at the local level is the lack of understanding among the individuals and groups about the dynamism of society. They fail to understand that groups can not have unlimited and sovereign powers in an interdependent world where science, technology and movements of population have brought different masses of individuals together. Yet we have not cultivated the courage or skill necessary to live together, to encounter the differences with tolerance and understanding. The conflict creates a situation where rule of law gives way to authoritarianism and order is replaced by anarchy. In the local level conflicts the conflicting claims of individuals or groups lead to loss of peace, human and material. We have been witness to these since the advent of naxlites in our district and state. The common man has got four options while conflicts: 1 –We can live with it. 2 – Leave it. 3 – Take it over. 4 – Go to war or in other words join the armed opposition groups. Conflict occurs when a desired goal or objective is not reasonably available. It may take place: • Within a person • Between people (local level) • Between organizations ( social, political, economical) • Between government and the governed (Structural conflict). • Between nations (international conflict). An individual experiences frustration when a barrier hampers the attainment of desired objective. The frustrated person may attack the barrier itself. Aggression comes out as response to frustration. Frustration leads to antagonism. Consequences of aggression may be even severe. Goal and role are the root causes of conflict. At whatever level occurrence of conflict poses a severe threat to peace. In the present era we are spectators of terrorism which is common to all the levels. On the local level it has assumed shape of Naxalism whereas at the national & international levels we are witness to terrorism. Naxalism in our country has become a national level conflict. Internationally also, unlike the past conflicts terrorism has become major cause. Hence conflicts at local and intra-national level arising out of multitude of reasons are as disparate to peace as is terrorism. Religion, ethnicity, separatism, political differences often result in circumstances where peace gives way for loss of enjoyment of fundamental freedoms and individual and collective rights. These in general are the result of struggle over values and claims to scarce status, power and resources. Various strands of local conflict may have their seeds in exclusion and discrimination based on religion, caste, gender, residence, or even political opinion. Positive dimension of conflict: Conflict can be a powerful tool that can enable us to move towards achieving optimum life, if used properly. Unresolved or persistent conflicts are indicative of a lack of consciousness in us. Insights on to conflicts makes its resolution possible and to harvest rich dividends. Management at the personal level: Conflict of any level has to be managed by a person or an individual. Individual as the basic unit of the sea of humanity holds key to the global peace. It has huge potential, urge and craving for peace at family, community, societal, national and global levels. Neither the ethics nor dynamics of a society can countenance conflict unless approached with peaceful minds. One of the formidable challenges that individual/minds face is the ego, the unquestionable propriety, which one attaches to his/her views. Considerations of prestige, self interest, desire to possession, aggrandizement, all combine to create and inflate ego. One of the fundamental requisites of peace and humanity therefore, is the balance of and between the egos. All the religions propagated peace as the paramount goal of human being and talked of taming ego as the best conquest. Gandhi & Satyagraha: Mahatma Gandhi pointed out that conflict took birth in mind, it could be only resolved through a mental process or mental force not through the deployment of physical force. He characterized Satyagraha as a mental, moral and spiritual force that the mind used to work on other minds and to correct attitudes and other acts, which were inconsistent with truth, justice and the principle of cohesion. This is also the essence of Dharma. Therefore, those who want to prevent the precipitation of differences on to conflicts can learn from what religion and spiritual exercises have taught us of how to tame the mind and make it an abode of peace and orient it towards reconciliation. Peace building for human rights: “We make war so that we may live in peace” declared Aristotle. None of us would differ that with the development of human rights jurisprudence, these wisdom words have outlived their utility. A peace resting on bayonets is as fragile as no peace at all. Peace does not require war as an usher. The human rights jurisprudence has long back renounced war as an instrument of peace. Peace not only signifies the absence of war but prevalence of conditions, which gives maximum effect to rule of law, justice and good governance. Peace lays the foundations on which the lofty super structures of equity, rule of law and sustainable development are built. Lasting peace resonates in communities valuing human rights. The story of development of human rights is cotemporaneous of efforts to maintain world peace and outlaw war as an instrument of policy. Justice and peace require the protection of human rights by the rule of law. In fact human rights are an instrument to inculcate, establish and practice a culture of tolerance and peace. Hence peace can not be established without realization of human rights. Absence of peace itself is violation of human rights. Keeping in conformity with the above depicted lines we endeavored in the direction of Peace building with two efforts at the state level. Although, we were no experts this issue yet our commitment, support of our well wishers and participation of social activists made us complacent with our efforts. The First effort "Addressing Human Rights in Conflict Situations” 1. INTRODUCTION Pairvi is a non-government non-profit organization based at New Delhi committed to promotion of universal values of human rights, democracy and good governance. The core constituency of Pairvi is to educate, engage and promote grass roots civil society organizations and citizen groups I human rights practice and advocacy and strengthen human rights infrastructure in the country. Nange Paon Satyagraha is a social movement engaged in monitoring and evaluation of Human Rights situations in Chhattisgarh. Nange Paon Satyagraha has been a strong advocate of Human Rights culture in the state. The core values of the organization are strongly based on the Gandhi an Principles of Satyagraha. In its efforts to promote a humane culture in Chhattisgarh, Nange Paon collaborates with civil society organizations and individuals committed to the field of human rights. As Nange Paon Satyagraha and Pairvi are concerned about the human rights situation in Chhattisgarh, they together organized a day long consultation meeting with civil society organizations of Chhattisgarh on April 17th, 2006 at Gass Memorial, Raipur. This daylong consultation meeting was organized to address the rising human rights violations in Chhattisgarh. The primary objectives of the consultation were: • Is Chhattisgarh in a conflict situation? If yes sharing of experiences narrating human rights violations? • What can the government do to prevent conflict and violation of human rights? • What is the potential role of civil society to reduce conflict and human rights violations? • Finding a way forward. The interface was designed to bring together civil society organizations and individuals who have been struggling on issues related to human rights in Chhattisgarh and have rich experience addressing the issues of the people at the grassroots. Background: The consultation meeting was organized to address the rising human rights abuses in Chhattisgarh. Nange Paon Satyagraha and Pairvi is of the opinion that in order to address this issue of rising human rights abuses, Civil Society Organization can play an important role in mediating between the state actors and the non state actors responsible for bleak human rights situation in this tribal state. The consultation meeting broadly provided a platform for opinion sharing on “what is development and how to get there”. The organizers feel that it was important to provide this platform because the problems of human rights abuses arise because of differences between various actors in defining development and the processes of reaching the target goals, which is primarily the development of people. This difference of opinions sometimes takes a shape of violent struggle as it is happening in Chhattisgarh. However the organizers feel that in such an armed struggle, the innocent tribal are the worst victims. This daylong conference was an effort to not only understand the problems that underline such violent struggle but also to come up with solutions which would act as a catalyst between the state and non-state actors engaged in an armed conflict in Chhattisgarh. 2. DISCUSSION The first parts of the discussions were on the situation of Human Rights in Chhattisgarh. Without any exception all the participants shared that the situation of human rights was grim. The Reality- The Participants felt that: - The situation of Human Rights in Chhattisgarh is far from worse, especially in the Naxal affected areas. - Both the state and non-state actors are responsible for this situation. - Innocent tribal are the worst sufferers in this conflict. - Because of the lack of development in Naxal areas, the future of the coming generation is bleak. - Deployment of huge armed forces both by the government and the Naxlites are the biggest threat to peace in that area. - Armed struggle is not the solution to end the problems of the people in those areas. - Conflict is not bad but the processes must be non-violent. - Naxalism is a socio-economic problem and not a law and order problem. - Some participants shared that the form of violence we see by the Naxlites is just an overt form of violence. However the biggest violator is the state, which is engaged in subtle, institutionalized violence that is primarily anti poor. - The Participants felt that following reasons are responsible for conflicts: - Underdevelopment of the tribal areas. - Multilevel privatization of the mineral resources of the area. - Cultural invasion by the government agencies on the pretext of development. - No or little compensation to the displaced tribal. - Efforts of curbing civil and political liberties by the government. - Huge scale human rights violation by armed forces like that Naga Battalion and Chhattisgarh Police. - Privatization of water bodies and anti-tribal laws pertaining to forests. - Lack of land reforms in Chhattisgarh. - Religious conversions of the tribal. - Lack of people oriented and functional democracy. The present democratic set-up makes it difficult for a poor local tribal to participate in the democratic political process - Inept and corrupt government officials. - Draconian laws that prohibit dissent like CSPS Act 2005. - Continuance of British Laws which are outdated and anti-people including Police Act, Forest Act etc. What can the government do to prevent conflict and violation of human rights? Speaking on this issue Mr. Ashok Chaturvedi, Ex Secretary MP Legislative Assembly, Board Member, Pairavi, shared that the following can be done to prevent conflict and violation of Human rights: - The Naxlites must join the mainstream. - If they have public support they should participate in the political processes and prove their mandate and support. - The Naxlites must use the rehabilitative programs and support from the government. - The government is ready to talk to the Naxlites if they lay down their weapons. - He also suggested that if there is problem it should be viewed in the changing global context. But instead the Naxlites are stuck to the theories that are outdated and violent. Reflecting on this issue Ms. Shatabdi Pandey and Ms. Hemlata Sahu, Member, State Women’s Commission, stated that although their mandate is limited to women, the problem of women couldn’t be seen in isolation. The status of women in conflict situation is particularly apathetic. The state women commission stated that at present there effort is to promote SHG formation and basic education. They have also advocated for counseling centers in the conflict areas to counter growing psychological stress on women. Ms. Manorama Singh shared her thought on how conflict affects children in particular. Conflict situations not only promotes migration but also facilitates trafficking of children. She suggested that instead of opposing government on every issue, the CSO’s must play a more constructive role and try to collaborate with government institutions to promote social justice and check injustices. What is the potential role of civil society to reduce conflict and human rights violations? Speaking on the issue, Mr. Rajendra Sail, Chairman. PUCL, Chhattisgarh lamented on the leftist interpretation of institutionalized violence. Mr. Sail condemned violence both by the State actors and the non-sate actors. He began by defining the term Radical, which according to him meant going to the roots of the problem and thus approaching the problem more holistically. He suggested that it is imperative for the CSO to understand the following before playing any constructive role in reducing conflict and human rights violation: - Why there is a revolt against the government. The reason is that the people have lost faith in the democracy that is anti poor. The poor cannot contest, as the nomination fees are very high. - The elected government is a nominal government. The MNC’s, WTO and Asian Development Banks etc control them. - Secret MoU with the MNC’s are signed which are often anti people. They are not even shown to their own fellow MLA’s. - Conflicts per se are not bad. Conflicts become violent when government suppresses dissent mercilessly. Understanding the roots of the problem, the CSO’s must promote the following: - Values of restorative justice. Mr. Sail gave the example of Peace and Reconciliation committee of South Africa. He informed that in present situation reconciliation is difficult because the present system is inherently biased, exclusive and anti-poor. - Sensitizing people of their rights and how they are being violated. - Organized struggle against the anti-people government. - Check the growth of Black Laws like the present CSPS Act 2005. - Empower Panchayat bodies. Promote self-governance at local level. - Prepare shadow reports of anti-people activities by the government and disseminate widely. Finding a way forward: Although the participants were drawn from different school of thoughts, whose spectrum ranged from right to left, the following were agreed upon unanimously: - The CSO should facilitate a high level meeting between the top leaders of government and Naxlites. - The CSO’s must promote and advocate for non-violent struggle. - The CSO’s must condemn human rights violation from both state actors as well as non-state actors. - Promote such gatherings and get more government officials to attend these conferences. - Unite to repeal Black Laws like CSPS Act 2005. - Systematically document human rights violations in their own areas. Share these documents with the government, civil Society organizations and media. 3. CONCLUSION: - The participants agreed that their views on how human rights situation could be improved in Chhattisgarh must be documented with due respect to the differences of opinions. - The report must be widely disseminated to all-important stakeholders like the government, CSO and media. - Nange Paon Satyagraha in coordination with other human rights organization within and outside state would continue to create such platforms for discussions. The Second Effort A brief report of three days training workshop Protecting human rights in conflict situations (14th to 16th October, 2006.Gass Memorial Centre; Raipur Chhattisgarh) Never before has the humanity seen a more complete consensus as there exists in case war or breach of peace over the globe. However, with the coercive power of the state as an accomplice in the breach of peace, civil society is posed with number of challenges. Restoration, preservation and promotion of peace as a way of promoting better human rights comes as the foremost. Abjuring violence as means of settling disputes needs to be advocated at all levels whether micro or macro. There is a need to build common understanding on the fact that there is no alternative to peace. Taking recourse to military or violent means for individuals or groups is as futile as is attempts to establish peace through repressive measures by the state. Both are equally reprehensive and abhorrent. Being a member of “civil society galaxy”, responsiveness to needs of people around becomes a moral obligation for us. Keeping in conformity the above views, we organized a three days training program for the representatives of Civil Society Organizations. Trainer: Sri Angshem Tongtong (Manipur) Facilitators: Sri Ashish Kumar; C.H.R.I. Raipur office. Ms. Smita Singh; PAIRVI New Delhi Sri Nilesh Munje; State Coordinator VANI Chhattisgarh Sri Rajesh Singh Sisodia; Nange Paon Satyagraha Day 1st Local Capacities for Peace (L.C.P.) LCP is a tool to design how much assistance is provided in conflict setting in ways that, rather feeding into and exacerbating the conflict, help local people disengage from the violence that surrounds them and begin to develop alternative systems for addressing the problems that underlie the conflict. L.C.P time line: This tool was tested in a period of six years. It could be accomplished in four phases. Phase 1: Case studies (1994-96) (a) 15 case studies in 14 conflict zones. (b) Do not harm book published. Phase 2: Feedback workshops (1996-97) • 25 feedback workshops testing 400 assistance works of 100 organizations. Phase 3: Implementation (2000) (a) 12 organizations implemented LCP framework. (b) Options for AID in conflict Phase 4: Mainstreaming process of LCP (2001) LCP Framework 1- Case studies should comprise: • What do you identify as the source of tension or division? • What do you identify that connects people with each other? • Factors connecting people. • Factors dividing people 2- Implicit ethical message: • Arm guards & power. • Mistrust, disrespect and competition among the development agencies. • Assistance workers impunity. • Different values for different life. • Powerlessness. • Tension, suspicion and beligeience. • Publicity. 3-Options: how to enter the conflict prone area is a major challenge for the peace builders. Given below are some options: (a) Medical aid (b) Rehabilitation (c) Improve relationship with the villagers & the armed groups (d) Mobile latrine. Dividers / Tensions 1- Systems and institutions. 2- Attitude and actions. 3- Difference in experiences. 4- Symbols and occasions. 5- Different values & interest. Connectors 1- Systems and institutions. 2- Attitude and actions. 3- Shared values and interest. 4- Common experience. 5- Symbols and occasions. How to win confidence of people in affected area? It won’t be right to turn off eyes from the dividers while their need for it immediately after any mishap. The below depicted chart gives an idea about actions to be taken. Dividers What to do? Connectors Assistance Repatriate Select neutral staff According Rehabilitate Equality To needs When Just after the mishap With what Food, shelter & confidence Where In badly destroyed area With whom The affected ones How Survey, linking & involving the Affected ones While working in conflict prone areas both dividers and connectors are likely to be found. To encourage connectors, selection of neutral staff and dealing with equality is most imperative. Day 2nd Trainer Sri Angshem suggested some steps to be followed and activities to be carried on, they are as under: 1- Try to reconcile. 2- Extend medical aid to injured ones of both the parties. 3- Social change. 4- Find out reasons of conflict. 5- Show them new ways: peace talks. 6- Find out the needs. 7- Involve local people & other likeminded groups. 8- Ensure women’s involvement. 9- Strategic long term planning & awareness campaign. After a discussion on these points and previous day deliberations, the participants felt a need for identification of causes and factors responsible for producing dividers & connectors. Sri Angshem drew those in a table for convenience. He pointed out options also. The table in the next page gives a clear idea. Options Dividers / Tensions Connectors Involve older groups & people. Form village development committees. Advocacy & lobbying. 1. Struggle for leadership. 2. Designs from outside. 3. Ethnic struggles. 4. Anarchy. 5. Communist vs. non-communist. 6. Two groups. 7. Natural resources. 8. Control of conflict. 9. Regular raids / looting. 10. Different ideologies. 11. Different interests. • Women groups’ initiatives. • Interest for community works. • Religion & custom. • Language. • Marriages. • Mixing in towns. • One goal. • School & clinics. • Common experience of war & resource scarcity. Impact of Aid on conflict Trainer Sri Angshem elaborated in detail how the mandate of any organization laid an effect on peace. Organization’s as well as its fund raising mandate to a great extent was responsible for either peace building or breaking it. Any individual if determined to disrupt peace could do it, likewise any organization too could do it. Hence the question here is of firm determination and mandate. He unpacked the “aid” which goes as: • Why? (goal/ objectives) • Where? • When? • What? • With whom? • By whom? • How? (strategy) Resource Transfer is an important factor as well as transaction which determines many of the things, circumstances etc. Resource could be human, material or monetary. Vital in formations are also a sort of resource. But how the resource transfer takes place? Pinpointing on this Angshem told: Theft, market effect, distributional effect, substitution effect and the legitimization effect have a significant role to play in resource transfer. Participatory Exercise: Identification of Connectors and Dividers in Chhattisgarh [A] Connecting factors 1. National festival. 2. Religious festival. 3. Women awareness & organization. 4. Education of school children. 5. Communication. 6. Transport facilities. 7. N.G.Os 8. Cultural programs. 9. Fairs 10. Hospital. 11. Market. 12. Rivers, tanks & wells. 13. Government schemes. 14. Tournaments. 15. Means of recreation. 16. Artist Groups (kala jattha) 17. P.D.S. shops. 18. Hotels. 19. Radio & television. 20. Public conventions. 21. Natural resources. 22. Natural calamities. 22. Traditions & customs Context of conflict Options Tensions/Dividers/ Capacities for war AID Connectors/local Capacities for peace Options REDISIGN 1. System & Institutions 2. Attitudes & Actions 3. [Different] Values & Interests 4. [Different] Experiences 5. Symbols & Occasions. Or Mandate Fundraising H Q Organization • Why? • Where? • What? • When? • With Whom • By Whom • How? 1. Systems & Institutions 2. Attitudes & Actions 3. [Shared] Values & Interest 4.[Common] Experiences 5.Symbols & Occasions REDISIGN [B] Dividing factors 1. Different religions. (Communal forces get an opportunity of division) 2. Inequitable education. (Variations in infrastructure of schools) 3. Economic disparities. 4. Regionalism. (provincialism) 5. Geographical variations lead to cultural practices. 6. External interference. 7. Availability of resources. 8. Administrative system. 9. Ideological differences. 10. Caste discrimination. 11. Political reasons. 12. Drugs, intoxicants. 13. Unemployment. 14. Uneducated masses. (Dividers cleverly exploit the uneducated ones in their favor.) 15. Inadequacy of resources. 16. Land disputes. (Shadow of judicial delay aggravates the situation) 17. Influx of outsider cultures. We do not claim that our efforts brought peace in Chhattisgarh but we are confident of. Since ever largest journeys begin from a single step, these efforts of ours are such a step. We do not believe in numbers & the elite component we believe in strong will, dedication & commitment. We shall continue with our moral obligation of communicating the Governments; so that they make all possible efforts for establishment of peace on from the times immemorial peaceful land of Chhattisgarh. Nange Paon (the poor) people are worst victims of conflict and we do not want to let them suffer any longer. Your all possible support at this critical juncture is badly solicited by us. Come forward…………………. &…………………………..Support us. Conflict resolution with in oneself Internally, we are divided against ourselves; the emotions want one thing, the intellect another, the impulses of the body yet another, and a conflict takes place which is no different in quality, although it is in scale, from that of the world wars. If we are not related to ourselves in wholeness, is it any surprise that we cannot perceive the wholeness of the world? […] Because the source of human conflict, social injustice, and exploitation is in the human psyche, we must begin there to transform society. We investigate the mind, the human psyche, not as an end in itself, as a self-centered activity, but as an act of compassion for the whole human race. We must move deep to the source of decay in society so that the new structures and social systems we design will have a sufficiently healthy root system that they will have an opportunity to flourish. […] Those of us who have dedicated our lives to social action have considered our personal morality and ethics, our motives and habits, to be private territory. We not only want our personal motivations and habits cut off from public view, but from our own recognition as well. But in truth, the inner life is not a private or personal thing; it's very much a social issue. The mind is a result of collective human effort. There is not your mind and my mind; it's a human mind. It's a collective human mind, organized and standardized through centuries. The values, the norms, the criteria are patterns of behavior organized by collective groups. There is nothing personal or private about them. We may close the doors to our rooms and feel that nobody knows our thoughts, but what we do in so-called privacy affects the life around us. If we spend our days victimized by negative energies and negative thoughts, if we yield to depression, melancholia, and bitterness, these energies pollute the atmosphere. Where then is privacy? […] The study of mind and the exploration of inner freedom is not something utopian, is not something self-centered, but it is urgently necessary so that we as human beings can transcend the barriers that regimentation of thought has created between us. Then we will perceive ourselves, each as an unlabeled human being […] a miniature wholeness.